- Fetching and unpacking
- Compiling without BLAS
- Compiling with ATLAS
- Compiling under MinGW
- Using UMFPACK with Microsoft Visual Studio
UMFPACK is Unsymmetric MultiFrontal direct solver for sparse matrices developed by Prof Timothy A. Davis:
The goal of this chapter is consider how to compile UMFPACK under gcc. I will use gcc under Cygwin but the procedure should be the same on Linux. Additionally I will describe how to use the UMFPACK library compiled with gcc under Cygwin from within Microsoft Visual Studio.
The plan is as follows. First we compile UMFPACK without BLAS. This is a good starting point for those who are new to Unix environment. The next step is to compile UMFPACK with the optimised BLAS in order to reach the best efficiency of the library (I will employ ATLAS). The two final steps are for people working on Windows – to compile UMFPACK under MinGW and to use this library from within Microsoft Visual Studio.
Fetching and unpacking
UMFPACK depends on AMD and UFConfig. Hence it is necessary to download and unpack three archives from the UMFPACK site. I will use
wget to get archives and
tar/gz to unpack them.
$ wget http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/sparse/umfpack/UMFPACK-5.2.0.tar.gz
$ wget http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/sparse/UFconfig/UFconfig-3.1.0.tar.gz
$ wget http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/sparse/amd/AMD-2.2.0.tar.gz
Let us check that we have the files
AMD-2.2.0.tar.gz UFconfig-3.1.0.tar.gz UMFPACK-5.2.0.tar.gz
and then unpack them
$ tar zxvf UMFPACK-5.2.0.tar.gz
Use TAB for name completion. That is, type
tar zxvf UM and press TAB.
$ tar zxvf UFconfig-3.1.0.tar.gz
$ tar zxvf AMD-2.2.0.tar.gz
Explore the directories and files. Short information is in
UMFPACK/README.txt and the documentation is in
UMFPACK/Doc. Pay attention to
UMFPACK/Makefile. This is the main makefile that will be used to build the library.
There are different configuration settings. They are made by editing file
UFconfig/UFconfig.mk. The variables defined in this file will be included in all makefiles.
Compiling without BLAS
Let us start by disabling the use of BLAS. The performance will suffer but this is the simplest way to start working. In this case, we need just to specify a C compiler in
UFconfig.mk. There are some Fortran files in the UMFPACK distribution but by default they are not used. For
gcc it suffers to change the next lines
CC = gcc
CFLAGS = -O3
The lines below are not to use BLAS. First it is necessary to comment out variables BLAS and LAPACK
#BLAS = -lblas -lgfortran -lgfortranbegin
#LAPACK = -llapack
Second is to modify
UMFPACK_CONFIG = -DNBLAS
Finally on Windows it is good to add
*.exe to the variable
CLEAN = *.o *.obj *.ln *.bb *.bbg *.da *.tcov *.gcov gmon.out *.bak *.d *.exe
.exe to binaries and this setting will clean them. Otherwise later on you may need to clean them manually.
The modified file is UFconfig.mk.noblas. You can just replace with it
Now we go to the directory UMFPACK and run make
$ cd UMFPACK
Now make reads
Makefile in this directory and executes it. It builds the AMD library in
AMD/Lib, the UMFPACK library in
UMFPACK/Lib, and then demos in
UMFPACK/Demo. After that it runs demos and compares output with the output included with the library. One sees some differences but they are not essential.
That’s it. Now you have
UMFPACK/Lib/libumfpack.a and compiled demos in
UMFPACK/Demo, that you can use as starting points on how to use UMFPACK in your code.
Compiling with ATLAS
UMFPACK uses calls to BLAS to reach the maximum efficiency. I will use ATLAS (you can find precompiled ATLAS with Cygwin at atlas-3.6-win.tar.gz) and assume that it is located at
$ ls $HOME/lib/atlas
libatlas.a libblas.a libcblas.a libf77blas.a liblapack.a
If you put it in another location, please modify the path to ATLAS below accordingly.
Let us first change the lines that told UMFPACK not to use BLAS and see what happens. Change in
UFconfig.mk the line with
or just comment it out. Now we have to delete previously compiled object files
$ make purge
and compile UMFPACK again without
What happens is that make compiles the AMD and UMFPACK libraries but fails to link demos. There should be linking errors
gcc -O3 -I../Include -I../../AMD/Include -I../../UFconfig -o umfpack_di_demo umfpack_di_demo.c ../Lib/libumfpack.a ../../AMD/Lib/libamd.a -lm
../Lib/libumfpack.a(umf_di_blas3_update.o):umf_blas3_update.c:(.text+0xe8): undefined reference to `_dtrsm_'
../Lib/libumfpack.a(umf_di_blas3_update.o):umf_blas3_update.c:(.text+0x184): undefined reference to `_dgemm_'
../Lib/libumfpack.a(umf_di_blas3_update.o):umf_blas3_update.c:(.text+0x1ff): undefined reference to `_dger_'
../Lib/libumfpack.a(umf_di_local_search.o):umf_local_search.c:(.text+0x4e4): undefined reference to `_dgemv_'
../Lib/libumfpack.a(umf_di_local_search.o):umf_local_search.c:(.text+0x6b0): undefined reference to `_dtrsv_'
Here we see a list of functions that now have been inserted in the UMFPACK library and which the linker could not find. However, the libraries AMD and UMFPACK by themselves are done and one can already use them.
There is a useful tool
nm that allows us to see the symbols defined in the libraries. The command
$ nm Lib/libumfpack.a | grep dgemm
confirms us that the symbol
_dgemm_ has been used in the UMFPACK library but is not defined there (symbol
U). On the other hand, we can see that this function is defined in
$ nm $HOME/lib/atlas/libf77blas.a | grep _dgemm_
00000000 T _dgemm_
00000000 T _atl_f77wrap_dgemm__
This means that we have to tell
make to use ATLAS libraries when it compiles demos. To this end it is necessary to define correctly the BLAS variable that we commented out previously
BLAS = -L$(HOME)/lib/atlas -lf77blas -latlas -lg2c
-L defines the path to the libraries and you may need to modify it appropriately. The path should be absolute or relative to
gcc will be executed in this directory. UMFPACK uses Fortran interface to BLAS that is defined in
libf77blas.a and the implementation by itself is in
libf77blas.a has been compiled with
g77 and as such it needs
should build demos correctly. Note that this time it does not build the libraries again.
UFconfig.mk set to use ATLAS is here (UFconfig.mk.atlas) but it may be necessary to change
BLAS to the right location.
Compiling under MinGW
Cygwin is a tool to port Unix applications to Windows. As such, it emulates Unix API on Windows and the final application is linked to
cygwin1.dll that implements the interface. One can see it with
cygcheck, for example
$ cygcheck Demo/umfpack_simple.exe
If we would like to use UMFPACK with Microsoft Visual Studio, we need to make sure that the compiled libraries do not call Unix API. This is possible if one uses the flag
-mno-cygwin, which forces gcc to use MinGW.
CFLAGS = -O3 -mno-cygwin
CFLAGS is defined two times and it is necessary to add this to the second definition or to comment the second definition out. The file with the change can be found here (UFconfig.mk.mingw).
$ make purge
and the libraries compiled with
-mno-cygwin are ready. Note that in this case the differences in output files will be much bigger. The first reason is that with
-mno-cygwin the application writes the end of line as
CR LF and in the output supplied with UMFPACK the end of line is just
LF. This can be circumvented with
$ diff -b my_umfpack_di_demo.out umfpack_di_demo.out
Still, there will be more differences as the formatting of numbers is different anyway.
Using UMFPACK with Microsoft Visual Studio
Microsoft Visual C compiler can be called from the command line and this is possible directly from within the Cygwin environment. To this end, it is necessary to modify the path and to define several environment variables required by
cl. You can look at Using Microsoft Visual C under Gygwin to see how I have done it under
When everything is done correctly, the command
cl should produce something like below
Microsoft (R) 32-Bit C/C++-Optimierungscompiler Version 14.00.50727.762 für 80x86
Copyright (C) Microsoft Corporation. Alle Rechte vorbehalten.
Syntax: cl [ Option... ] Dateiname... [ /link Linkeroption... ]
The Microsoft linker recognizes the libraries compiled by
gcc under Cygwin. What we need to do is to just rename them from
Let us take as an example
UMPFACK/Demo. Make a directory
ms in the directory where we have started
$ cd ..
AMD UFconfig UMFPACK AMD-2.2.0.tar.gz
$ mkdir ms
$ cd ms
and copy this file here. Then copy and rename
libatlas.a by changing the extension from
*.lib. Additionally we need
libg2c.a uses some symbols from it. You should take these two libraries from
/lib/gcc/i686-pc-mingw32/3.4.4 (not from
At the end you should have the next files
libamd.lib libf77blas.lib libgcc.lib umfpack_simple.c
libatlas.lib libg2c.lib libumfpack.lib
Now the command
$ cl -MD -I../UMFPACK/Include -I../AMD/Include -I../UFconfig umfpack_simple.c libumfpack.lib libamd.lib libf77blas.lib libatlas.lib libg2c.lib libgcc.lib
does the job. It compiles
umfpack_simple.c and links the object file with the libraries. The flags
cl where to find the headers from UMFPACK. You may need to modify the path if you have made this directory in another place. Interestingly enough that
cl understands correctly the direct slash as the sigh for directory.
-MD is the regime with which the MinGW libraries are working best. In this case actually it is possible to compile without it but there will some warnings from the linker. If you understand the command, you can make also this settings directly in GUI.
Finally the question how I have found that it is necessary to add
libgcc.lib. The answer is simple. Try to compile without it. Then you immediately see some symbols missing and simple manipulations with nm shows that they are in
By editing makefiles in UMPFACK it is possible to compile AMD and UMFPACK directly with
cl. This should be relatively simple. What will be more challenging is to compile ATLAS with
cl. Alternatively you can use the optimised Intel BLAS.