The LAPACK library for linear algebra is integrated in many interactive environments (for example, Mathematica or Matlab) and this is the simplest way to access it. In this chapter, I will demonstrate the use of some LAPACK routines from SciPy in Python. Below it is assumed that NumPy and SciPy are installed in your Python installation.
The problem to solve is a system of linear equations
A x = b
A is a square matrix,
b is the right-hand side vector, and
x is the vector to be found. In the general case, one may need to solve such a system with many right-hand sides that can be expressed as follows
A X = B
where the number of columns in the matrix
B is equal to the number of right-hand sides to solve. The matrix
X now contains solutions for each right-hand side in
Let us start with 01solve.py. In this script, the dimension of the matrix
dim x dim) and the number of the right-hand sides
dim x rhs) is supposed to be specified as the command line arguments. If
rhs is not given in the command line, it is assumed to be one. In the script, the matrices
B are initialized with random numbers and then by means of the function solve the system of equations is solved. The script reports the time for linear solve and the relative residual
norm(A X -B)/norm(A).
The script on my notebook
$ python 01solve.py 1000 1
time for solution is 0.136413484783 s
reports about 0.14 s to solve a linear system with a matrix of 1000×1000 (it may be necessary to issue the command several times to reach a stable time). For a matrix 2000×2000
$ python 01solve.py 2000 1
time for solution is 0.876963398496 s
the time increases about 6.5 times that is close to the theoretical value of 8. The theory estimates the number of operations in this case as
O(N^3) and this means that when the dimension of the problem increases twice, the number of operations increases 2^3=8 times.
Now let us increase the number of right-hand sides.
$ python 01solve.py 2000 10
time for solution is 0.895961511278 s
Interestingly enough, the time to solve ten linear systems with the same matrix is about the same as to solve one linear system. This is the feature of so called direct solves based on the Gaussian elimination. The reason is simple. Internally the matrix A first is decomposed to the two triangular matrices L and U (the LU decomposition) and then these two matrices are employed to find x during so called back substitution. The main time is needed for the LU decomposition and the back substitution is pretty fast. This means that if it is necessary to solve different systems with the same matrix and different right-hand sides, the best to do it at once.
Alternatively one can use two functions separately. One for the LU decomposition and another for the back substitution. This is demonstrated in 02lu.py. Now we can measure time separately:
$ python 02lu.py 2000 1
time for LU is 0.807640075188 s
time for back substitution is 0.0104189885428 s
$ python 02lu.py 2000 10
time for LU is 0.808609364841 s
time for back substitution is 0.0233895599714 s
The results shows that SciPy has some own overhead while calling LAPACK functions. The time with the use of the two functions is a bit smaller than with one. Also the time for ten back substitutions is not ten times bigger as one could expect. Yet, I hope it is still shows you what happens behind the scene.
Is it possible to reduce the time that we see with random matrices? Or could it be bigger? In general, the time does depend slightly on the matrix for the LU decomposition. First, there is pivoting and its time depends on the matrix, second when there are many zeros in the matrix then it takes less time to perform operations with them. Yet, it is rather save to expect that the time to solve a linear system of equations with a dense matrix is the function of the matrix dimension only.
What is more important is the symmetry of the matrix and such a special property as positive definiteness. In this case, there are other decompositions that need less operations than the LU decomposition. In the case of positive definite matrices (they must be symmetric but not all symmetric matrices are positive definite), there is the Cholesky decomposition and it is shown in the script 03cholesky.py.
cho_factor takes by default the lower triangular matrix from
A. Also after obtaining the random matrix
A, its diagonal members are multiplied with some factor to increase chances that the matrix will be positive definite. If you receive an error, that the matrix is not positive definite, please try once more or increase that factor in the script. The Cholesky decomposition
$ python 03cholesky.py 2000 1
time for Cholesky is 0.492923034014 s
time for back substitution is 0.0836654586466 s
is roughly two time faster than the LU decomposition. The time for back substitution is however slower. I should say that I do not know if this is some SciPy overhead or LAPACK related. It would be good to check it. In any case, this means that if your matrix is positive definite, it makes sense to use not the LU decomposition but the Cholesky decomposition. In the case of symmetric indefinite matrix, there is the L^t D L decomposition that should be also faster than the LU decomposition but it is not available through the SciPy interface.
Finally the script 04lu_read.py gives an example on how one could read the matrix and the right-hand side in the Matrix Market format (for example from the The University of Florida Sparse Matrix Collection) and the write answer also in the Matrix Market format.